A rheumatologist specializes in the field of medical subspecialty called rheumatology. Rheumatologists are internists who are qualified by additional postgraduate training and experience in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones. Many Rheumatologists also conduct research to determine the cause and better treatments for these disabling and sometimes fatal diseases. Treatment modalities are based on scientific research, currently, the practice of rheumatology is largely evidence-based.
In modern terminology rheumatology is called Clinical Immunology.
Now it is understood that the root cause of a condition such as rheumatism is a dysregulation of the immune system’s normal functioning. However, the term rheumatology is still retained for the sake of consistency and ease of recognition among patients and this division is also referred to as Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology.
Thus diseases arising from dysregulation of the immune system’s normal functioning (which also results in the immune system-which is supposed to protect the body-turning on its own body and thereby causing immune system disease) can affect nearly any organ of the body.